ANNIVERSARIES

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Re: ANNIVERSARIES

Post by MajorBloodnok » Wed Mar 01, 2017 2:47 pm

03-01: ST. DAVID’s DAY – TRADITIONAL PRESENTATION Of LEEKS To SOLDIERS Of WELSH REGIMENTS Of The BRITISH ARMY
569-03-01: DEATH of ST. DAVID
‘SAINT DAVID’s DAY’ is the feast day of SAINT DAVID, the PATRON SAINT of WALES, and falls on 1 March each year. The first day of March was chosen in remembrance of the death of Saint David. Tradition holds that he died on that day in 569. The date was declared a national day of celebration within Wales in the 18th century.
During Elizabethan times, Shakespeare refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an "ancient tradition", and his character Henry V tells Fluellen that he is wearing a leek "for I am Welsh, you know, good countryman."
Even earlier than this, entries in the household accounts of the ‘Welsh’ Tudor Kings of England, record payments for leeks worn by the Household Guards on St. David's Day.
Earlier still in the fourteenth century, it is known that the feared Welsh archers adopted the green and white colours of the leek for their uniforms, perhaps at the Battle of Crecy.
Earlier than this however, myth and legend begin to intertwine. According to one legend recorded by the English poet Michael Drayton in the early 1600’s, the leek was associated with St. David the Patron Saint of Wales who died in 589 AD. It is possible that the poet made up the story; however it tells how St. David ordered his soldiers to wear the leek on their helmets in a battle against the hated pagan Saxon invaders of Britain. The battle itself is also said to have taken place in a field full of leeks.
And so today each year on St. David's Day the leek is worn in the cap badges of every soldier in every Welsh regiment.
And so today EACH YEAR ON ST. DAVID’s DAY the LEEK IS WORN in the CAP BADGES of EVERY SOLDIER IN EVERY WELSH REGIMENT!
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Re: ANNIVERSARIES

Post by MajorBloodnok » Wed Mar 01, 2017 3:07 pm

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Re: ANNIVERSARIES

Post by MajorBloodnok » Wed Mar 01, 2017 4:39 pm

SORRY FOR *****-UP!
SHOULD READ "WELSH GUARDS', OF COURSE!
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Re: ANNIVERSARIES

Post by oakdale160 » Wed Mar 01, 2017 10:24 pm

DEWI SANT---in welsh

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Re: ANNIVERSARIES

Post by MajorBloodnok » Wed Mar 15, 2017 10:36 am

03-15
2004-03-15: KRISS DONALD, TORTURED & MURDERED BY PAKISTANI MUSLIMS – R.I.P.
KRISS DONALD, 2nd BRITISH MARTYR FOR THE CAUSE
<1988-07-02/2004-03-15>
was a SCOTTISH 15-YEAR-OLD WHITE MALE WHO WAS KIDNAPPED, TORTURED and MURDERED in Glasgow in 2004 by a GANG of MUSLIM PAKISTANI MEN, some of whom fled to Pakistan after the crime. daanish zahid, imran shahid, zeeshan shahid, and mohammed faisal mustaq were later FOUND GUILTY OF RACIALLY MOTIVATED MURDER and sentenced to life imprisonment. A fifth participant in the crime was convicted of racially motivated violence and jailed for five years.
The case, which featured the first ever conviction for racially motivated murder in Scotland, is cited as an EXAMPLE OF THE LACK OF ATTENTION THE MEDIA AND SOCIETY GIVE TO WHITE SUFFERERS OF RACIST ATTACKS COMPARED TO THAT GIVEN TO ETHNIC MINORITIES, WITH ORGANISATIONS SUCH AS THE BBC LATER ADMITTING FAILING TO COVER THE CASE SUFFICIENTLY. IT ALSO SUGGESTED THE CRIME DEMONSTRATES HOW SOCIETY HAS BEEN FORCED TO REDEFINE RACISM SO AS TO NO LONGER EXCLUDE WHITE VICTIMS.
— with Justice for Kriss Donald. Worst racist killing in British history
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Re: ANNIVERSARIES

Post by MajorBloodnok » Fri Mar 17, 2017 11:20 am

03-17 (1)
BRITISH ARMY
2014-03-17: Mons Barracks, Aldershot – CATHERINE, DUCHESS of CAMBRIDGE, presenting shamrocks to members of the IRISH GUARDS
03-17: ST. PATRICK’s DAY – SOLDIERS of the IRISH GUARDS & the ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT are presented with SHAMROCKS, flown over from Ireland. The tradition dates back to the first regimental St Patrick’s Day in 1901, when Queen Alexandra, wife of King Edward VII, requested the shamrock be passed among the men on parade and shamrocks were previously presented by the Queen Mother.
461-03-17: DEATH of ST. PATRICK
SAINT PATRICK’s DAY, or the Feast of Saint Patrick (Irish: Lá Fhéile Pádraig, "the Day of the Festival of Patrick"), is a cultural and religious celebration held on 17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick (c. AD 385–461), the foremost PATRON SAINT of IRELAND.
Saint Patrick's Day was made an official Christian feast day in the early 17th century and is observed by the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion (especially the Church of Ireland), the Eastern Orthodox Church, and Lutheran Church. The day commemorates Saint Patrick and the arrival of Christianity in Ireland, and celebrates the heritage and culture of the Irish in general. Celebrations generally involve public parades and festivals, céilithe, and the WEARING OF green attire or SHAMROCKS. Christians also attend church services and the Lenten restrictions on eating and drinking alcohol are lifted for the day, which has encouraged and propagated the holiday's tradition of alcohol consumption.
Saint Patrick's Day is a public holiday in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland , the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, and the British Overseas Territory of Montserrat. It is also widely celebrated by the Irish diaspora around the world, especially in Great Britain, Canada, the United States, Argentina, Australia, and New Zealand.

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Re: ANNIVERSARIES

Post by MajorBloodnok » Fri Mar 24, 2017 12:13 pm

03-24

ENGLAND

1603-03-24: DEATH Of QUEEN ELIZABETH I – R.I.P.

ELIZABETH I, QUEEN Of ENGLAND
<1533-09-07/1603-03-24>
was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called ‘The Virgin Queen’, ‘Gloriana’ or ‘Good Queen Bess’, the childless Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.

Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, who was executed two and a half years after Elizabeth's birth. Anne's marriage to Henry VIII was annulled, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Her half-brother, Edward VI, ruled until his death in 1553, bequeathing the crown to Lady Jane Grey and ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters, Elizabeth and the Roman Catholic Mary, in spite of statute law to the contrary. Edward's will was set aside and Mary became Queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Mary's reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.
In 1558, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister to the throne and set out to rule by good counsel. She depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers, led by William Cecil, Baron Burghley. One of her first actions as Queen was the establishment of an English Protestant Church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England.
It was expected that Elizabeth would marry and produce an heir to continue the Tudor line. She never did, despite numerous courtships. As she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity. A cult grew around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, and literature of the day.
In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and half-siblings had been. One of her mottoes was "video et taceo" ("I see, and say nothing"). In religion she was relatively tolerant and avoided systematic persecution.
After 1570, when the Pope declared her illegitimate and released her subjects from obedience to her, several conspiracies threatened her life, all of which were defeated with the help of her ministers' secret service. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the major powers of France and Spain. She only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France, and Ireland. By the mid-1580s, England could no longer avoid war with Spain. England's defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history.
ELIZABETH’s REIGN is known as the ELIZABETHAN ERA. The period is famous for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, and for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake. Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler, who enjoyed more than her share of luck. Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity. Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor in an era when government was ramshackle and limited, and when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones. Such was the case with Elizabeth's rival, Mary, Queen of Scots, whom she imprisoned in 1568 and had executed in 1587. After the short reigns of Elizabeth's half-siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity.
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Re: ANNIVERSARIES

Post by MajorBloodnok » Sat Apr 08, 2017 6:51 pm

04-08
ROYAL NAVY
1940-04-08: SINKING Of DESTROYER HMS GLOWWORM AFTER COLLISION IN ENGAGEMENT WITH GERMAN HEAVY CRUISER ADMIRAL HIPPER WITH 109 MEN DROWNED, SIX Of 40 SURVIVORS LATER DYING Of WOUNDS SUSTAINED – R.I.P.
HMS GLOWWORM was a G-Class destroyer built for the Royal Navy in the mid-1930s. In March 1940, she was transferred to the Home Fleet, just in time to participate in the opening stages of the Norwegian Campaign.
On the morning of 8 April 1940 Glowworm was on her way to rejoin Renown when she encountered the German destroyers Z11 Bernd von Arnim and Z18 Hans Lüdemann in the heavy fog before 8:00 a.m. The destroyers were part of a German naval detachment, led by the heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper, on its way to land troops at Trondheim as part of the German invasion of Norway (Operation Weserübung). Glowworm opened fire and the German destroyers attempted to disengage, signalling for help. The request was soon answered by Admiral Hipper which spotted Glowworm at 09:50. Hipper initially had difficulty in distinguishing Glowworm from von Arnim, but opened fire eight minutes later at a range of 8,400 metres (9,200 yd) with her 20.3-centimetre (8.0 in) main guns. Glowworm was hit by Hipper's fourth salvo and she started making smoke. She turned into her own smoke in an attempt to break visual contact with Hipper, but the cruiser's radar-directed guns were not affected by the smoke. When the destroyer emerged from her smoke the range was now short enough that the cruiser's 10.5-centimetre (4.1 in) guns could fire. Glowworm's radio room, bridge, and forward 4.7-inch gun were all destroyed, and she received additional hits in the engine room, the captain's day cabin, and finally the mast. As this crashed down, it caused a short circuit of the wiring, causing the ship's siren to start a banshee wail. At 10:10 Lieutenant Commander Gerard Broadmead Roope, fired five torpedoes from one mounting at a range of 800 metres (870 yd), but all missed because Captain Hellmuth Heye had kept Hipper's bow pointed at Glowworm throughout the battle to minimize his risk from torpedoes. The destroyer fell back through her smoke screen to buy time to get her second torpedo mount working, but Heye followed Glowworm through the smoke to finish her off before she could fire the rest of her torpedoes. The two ships were very close when Hipper emerged from the smoke and Roope ordered a hard turn to starboard to reduce the range and possibly ram the destroyer. Hipper was slow to answer her helm and Glowworm struck the cruiser just abaft the anchor. The collision broke off Glowworm's bow and the rest of the ship scraped along Hipper's side, gouging open several holes in the latter's hull and destroying her forward starboard torpedo mounting. One German sailor was knocked overboard by the collision. Hipper took on some 500 tonnes (490 long tons) of water before the leaks could be isolated, but was not seriously damaged.
Glowworm was on fire when she drifted clear and her boilers exploded at 10:24, taking 109 of her crew with her.
Admiral Hipper hove to in order to rescue her man overboard and Glowworm's survivors. The German sailor was not found, but 40 British sailors were recovered, although at least six later died of their wounds.
Lieutenant Ramsay, the senior surviving officer, told his rescuers that neither the helm nor the emergency rudder were manned when the ships collided. So the destroyer's turn towards Hipper was probably accidental. German accounts only mention four torpedoes fired by Glowworm, but British accounts say all ten were fired. This was confirmed by photographic evidence taken after the collision showing all of her torpedo tubes empty.
LIEUTENANT COMMANDER GERARD BROADMEAD ROOPE, who drowned when he could no longer hang on to a rope whilst being pulled up the side of the cruiser, was POSTHUMOUSLY AWARDED The VICTORIA CROSS, thus becoming the first VC recipient of the Second World War. The award was justified, in part, by the recommendation of Heye, who wrote to the British authorities via the Red Cross, giving a statement of the valiant courage Roope had shown when engaging a much superior ship in close battle. Ramsay was also awarded the DSO. Both awards were made after the end of the war.


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Post by MajorBloodnok » Sun Apr 09, 2017 4:30 pm

CENTENARY Of The BATTLE Of VIMY RIDGE
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/04 ... -pictures/
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Re: ANNIVERSARIES

Post by MajorBloodnok » Sun Apr 09, 2017 4:38 pm

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Re: ANNIVERSARIES

Post by Bamboo Grove » Tue Apr 11, 2017 12:49 am

Somehow I wasn't surprised that this anniversary got no mention here.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jallianwala_Bagh_massacre
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Re: ANNIVERSARIES

Post by MajorBloodnok » Tue Apr 11, 2017 2:11 pm

04-11

1960-04-11: DEATH Of SIR ARCHIBALD McINDOE – R.I.P.

SIR ARCHIBALD McINDOE CBE FRCS
<1900-05-04/1960-04-11>
was a pioneering New Zealand plastic surgeon who worked for the Royal Air Force during World War II. He greatly improved the treatment and rehabilitation of badly burned aircrew.

Early Life
Archibald McIndoe was born 4 May 1900 in Dunedin, New Zealand, into a family of four. His father was John McIndoe, a printer and his mother was the artist Mabel McIndoe née Hill he had three brothers and one sister. McIndoe studied at Otago Boys' High School and later medicine at the University of Otago. After his graduation he became a house surgeon at Waikato Hospital.
In 1924 McIndoe was awarded the first New Zealand Fellowship at the Mayo Clinic in the United States to study pathological anatomy. The fellowship was for an unmarried doctor and as McIndoe had recently married Adonia Aitkin they had to keep their marriage secret and he sailed without her. When it was no longer possible to maintain the secret she joined him 12 months later. He worked in the clinic as First Assistant in Pathological Anatomy 1925-1927 and published several papers on chronic liver disease. Impressed with his skill, Lord Moynihan suggested a career in England, and in 1930 McIndoe moved to London.
When McIndoe could not find work, his cousin SIR HAROLD GILLIES, an otolaryngologist specializing in plastic surgery (who now has an operation for reducing a broken cheekbone named after himself), invited him to join the private practice he ran with Rainsford Mowlem and offered him a job at St Bartholomew's Hospital, where he became a clinical assistant. In 1932 McIndoe received a permanent appointment as a General Surgeon and Lecturer at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
In 1934, McIndoe received a Fellowship of the American College of Surgeons, where he worked until 1939. That year he became a consulting plastic surgeon to the Royal North Stafford Infirmary and to Croydon General Hospital. In 1938 he was appointed consultant in plastic surgery to the Royal Air Force.
WORLD WAR II
When World War II broke out plastic surgery was largely divided on service lines. GILLIES went to Rooksdown House near Basingstoke, which became the principal Army Plastic Surgery Unit; Tommy Kilner (who had worked with Gillies during the First World War, and who now has a surgical instrument named after him, the kilner cheek retractor), went to Queen Mary's Hospital, Roehampton, and Mowlem to St Albans.
McINDOE moved to the recently rebuilt Queen Victoria Hospital in East Grinstead, Sussex, and founded a Centre for Plastic and Jaw Surgery. There, he treated very deep burns and serious facial disfigurement like loss of eyelids.
Patients at the hospital formed ‘The GUINEA PIG CLUB’. Among the better-known members of his "club" were Richard Hillary, Geoffrey Page, Bill Foxley and Jimmy Edwards.
McIndoe was a brilliant and quick surgeon. He not only developed new techniques for treating badly burned faces and hands but also recognised the importance of the rehabilitation of the casualties and particularly of social reintegration back into normal life. He disposed of the "convalescent uniforms" and let the patients use their service uniforms instead. With the help of two friends, Neville and Elaine Blond, he also convinced the locals to support the patients and invite them to their homes. McIndoe kept referring to them as "his boys" and the staff called him "The Boss" or "The Maestro".
Important work included development of the walking-stalk skin graft, and the discovery that immersion in saline promoted healing as well as improving survival rates for victims with extensive burns - this was a serendipitous discovery drawn from observation of differential healing rates in pilots who had come down on land and in the sea.
Later Years
After the end of the war McIndoe returned to private practice. His specialty was the 'McIndoe nose'.
McIndoe was created CBE in 1944 and after the War he received a number of British and foreign honours, including a Commandeur de la Légion d'honneur (Commander of the Legion of Honour) and a knighthood in 1947 for his remarkable work on restoring the minds and bodies of the burnt young pilots of World War II through his innovative reconstructive surgery techniques. That same year he visited East Africa for the first time, and took up farming on Kilimanjaro. It was here in 1956 with his two former pupils, Michael Wood and Tom Rees, that the dream of African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) was born.
He became a member of a council of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1946 and its president in 1958. His marriage to Adonia ended in 1953, and he married Constance Belcham in 1954. In 1958 McIndoe was a Bradshaw lecturer about facial burns, a subject he knew well. He took part in the founding of the British Association of Plastic Surgeons (BAPS) and later served as its third President.
Death
Archibald McIndoe died in his sleep of a heart attack on 11 April 1960, aged 59, in his house at 84 Albion Gate, London.
He was cremated, and his ashes were given the unique honour for a civilian of being buried at the Royal Air Force Church of St Clement Danes.
Legacy
On 22 March 1961, the British Minister of Health opened the Blond McIndoe Centre named in his honour at the Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead. The Blond McIndoe Centre, now named the Blond McIndoe Research Foundation, continues research into pioneering treatments to improve wound healing. The Blond McIndoe Research Foundation is a registered charity which recently celebrated its 50th Anniversary.
The McIndoe Burns Centre at his former base, Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, was dedicated in 1994, and there is a burns victim support group centred there which also bears his name. A bronze monument in his honour by Martin Jennings, whose father was one of McIndoe's patients, has been created in East Grinstead High Street. It depicts a seated airman, his burned hands clawed together, his scarred face turned to one side. Standing behind him, resting a reassuring hand on each shoulder, is the figure of McIndoe. They are framed by a stone bench.


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Re: ANNIVERSARIES

Post by oakdale160 » Thu Apr 13, 2017 10:25 am

Lasr w;end saw ceremonies at Vimy Ridge commemorating the battle to seize the Ridge. For the firsyt time all the Canadian companies fought together under Canadian commanders. The slaughter was horrific, but the Canadians seized the ridge.
Vimy was Canada's Gallipoli and in both cases it is claimed that both countries became nations due to those heroic battles.

When the war started not Britain, but The British Empire declared war on Germany-- The Great Dominions--Canada, Australia, NZ, S. Africa and other colonies were included in that declaration. However, when the allies met to sign the Treaty of Versailles that ended the war, Canada and Australia were seated at the table and signed the treaty. That was the moment that they truly became independent nations.

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Re: ANNIVERSARIES

Post by MajorBloodnok » Fri Apr 14, 2017 10:25 pm

04-15
BRITAIN
1912-04-15: SINKING Of RMS TITANIC WITH Ca. 1,500 PASSENGERS & CREW – R.I.P.
RMS TITANIC was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in the early morning of 15 April 1912, after colliding with an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton, UK, to New York City, US. The sinking resulted in the deaths of more than 1,500 passengers and crew, making it one of the deadliest commercial peacetime maritime disasters in modern history. The RMS Titanic, the largest ship afloat at the time it entered service, was the second of three Olympic class ocean liners operated by the White Star Line, and was built by the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, with Thomas Andrews as her naval architect. Andrews was among those who died in the sinking. On her maiden voyage, she carried 2,224 passengers and crew.
Under the command of Edward Smith, the ship's passengers included some of the wealthiest people in the world, as well as hundreds of emigrants from Great Britain and Ireland, Scandinavia and elsewhere throughout Europe seeking a new life in North America. A high-power radiotelegraph transmitter was available for sending passenger "marconigrams" and for the ship's operational use. Although Titanic had advanced safety features such as watertight compartments and remotely activated watertight doors, there were not enough lifeboats to accommodate all of those aboard due to outdated maritime safety regulations. Titanic only carried enough lifeboats for 1,178 people—slightly more than half of the number on board, and one-third her total capacity.
After leaving Southampton on 10 April 1912, Titanic called at Cherbourg in France and Queenstown (now Cobh) in Ireland before heading west to New York. On 14 April 1912, four days into the crossing and about 375 miles (600 km) south of Newfoundland, she hit an iceberg at 11:40 p.m. ship's time. The collision caused the ship's hull plates to buckle inwards along her starboard side and opened five of her sixteen watertight compartments to the sea; the ship gradually filled with water. Meanwhile, passengers and some crew members were evacuated in lifeboats, many of which were launched only partly loaded. A disproportionate number of men were left aboard because of a "women and children first" protocol followed by some of the officers loading the lifeboats. By 2:20 a.m., she broke apart and foundered, with well over one thousand people still aboard. Just under two hours after Titanic foundered, the Cunard liner RMS Carpathia arrived on the scene of the sinking, where she brought aboard an estimated 705 survivors.
The disaster was greeted with worldwide shock and outrage at the huge loss of life and the regulatory and operational failures that had led to it. Public inquiries in Britain and the United States led to major improvements in maritime safety. One of their most important legacies was the establishment in 1914 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), which still governs maritime safety today. Additionally, several new wireless regulations were passed around the world in an effort to learn from the many missteps in wireless communications—which could have saved many more passengers.
The wreck of Titanic remains on the seabed, split in two and gradually disintegrating at a depth of 12,415 feet (3,784 m). Since her discovery in 1985, thousands of artefacts have been recovered and put on display at museums around the world. Titanic has become one of the most famous ships in history; her memory is kept alive by numerous works of popular culture (e.g.,books, folk songs, films, exhibits, and memorials).
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Re: ANNIVERSARIES

Post by MajorBloodnok » Fri Apr 14, 2017 10:29 pm

04-14

BRITAIN / BAROQUE

1759-04-14: DEATH Of FREDERICK HANDEL – R.I.P.

GEORGE FRIDERIC/FREDERICK HANDEL (b. GEORG FRIEDRICH HAENDEL)
<OS 1685-02-23[NS 03-05]/NS 1759-04-14>
was a German, later British Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
Handel received critical training in Halle, Hamburg and Italy before settling in London in 1712; he became a naturalised British subject in 1727. He was strongly influenced both by the great composers of the Italian Baroque and the middle-German polyphonic choral tradition.
Within fifteen years, Handel had started three commercial opera companies to supply the English nobility with Italian opera. Musicologist Winton Dean writes that his operas show that "Handel was not only a great composer; he was a dramatic genius of the first order." As Alexander's Feast (1736) was well received, Handel made a transition to English choral works. After his success with Messiah (1742) he never performed an Italian opera again.
Born the same year as Johann Sebastian Bach and Domenico Scarlatti, Handel is regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Baroque era, with works such as Water Music, Music for the Royal Fireworks and Messiah remaining steadfastly popular. One of his four Coronation Anthems, Zadok the Priest (1727), composed for the coronation of George II, has been performed at every subsequent British coronation, traditionally during the sovereign's anointing. Handel composed more than forty operas in over thirty years, and since the late 1960s, with the revival of Baroque music and historically informed musical performance, interest in Handel's operas has grown.
Almost blind, and having lived in England for nearly fifty years, he died in 1759, a respected and rich man. His funeral was given full state honours, and he was buried in Westminster Abbey in London.
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